來一次搞懂「數量詞」(Some, Any, Much 等)

You are currently viewing 來一次搞懂「數量詞」(Some, Any, Much 等)

Hello, everyone! 我是英文庫的 Celine 🙂,今天要來告訴你怎麼用英文描述數量多寡唷!

如果你要點餐,就會需要知道確切數量,像是 one hamburger、two beers 等,但在我們生活中其實有很多時候都會描述個大概,像是「一些、一點、很多、很少」等,所以今天就是要教你這些用法囉!

先來看看這個例子吧~
相信大家在英文課應該都聽過老師說這句話吧:Do you have any questions?

然後,如果有個好問的同學在快下課前這樣回應老師:Yes, I have many questions.
大家應該都會很想揍他吧!🤣

那句子中用到的 any 和 many 就是用來描述 questions 的數量詞唷!

我們再來多看幾個例句吧:

I need some paper and pens.

The soup needs a little salt.

Few students got good grades on the math test.

He has much money.

All my money was stolen.

I have no friends.

以上都是用來說明名詞數量的數量詞,只是描述的數量多寡不太一樣,而後面接的名詞也可能是可數或不可數。

Let’s learn some new knowledge!

數量詞一覽

在進入細節前,我們先來瀏覽一下數量詞有哪些以及它們的意思吧!

數量詞中文例句
some一些I bought some milk and eggs.
any一些;任何I don’t have any money.
a few一些I saw a few people there.
a little一些I have a little money.
few很少Few people knew the news.
little很少There is little juice left.
many很多I have many books.
much很多I don’t have much money.
each每個She had a bag in each hand.
every每個都Every student needs to do this assignment.
all全部All my foods were stolen.
whole整體的She didn’t tell us the whole story.
both兩者都Both my hands were hurt.
no全無No people knew the answer to the question.
none(某範圍內)全不None of my family members can drive a car.

看完這個表格後,你可能會覺得有些字的用法有點像,所以接下來,就來看看數量詞詳細的用法,你會更清楚什麼情況下要用哪個喔!

some

  • some 的意思為「一些」,通常用於肯定句,用在疑問句時則帶有請求邀請確知答案的狀況。
  • some + 複數可數名詞 / 不可數名詞

I want some cookies.
我想要一些餅乾。

Mom bought some cheese yesterday.
媽媽昨天買了一些起司。

Would you like some milk in your coffee?
你想要在你的咖啡裡加點牛奶嗎?(認為對方會說好)

Do you have some ice cubes?
你有冰塊嗎?(帶有請求意味,並認為對方會有)

Do you have some time? Wanna have a cup of coffee with me?
你有空嗎?想跟我喝杯咖啡嗎?(帶有邀請意味,並認為對方會說好)

A: How about some brownies for dessert?
A: 甜點來點布朗尼如何?(帶有邀請意味,並認為對方會說好)

B: Sure!
B: 當然好唷!

any

  • any 的意思為「一些;任何」,通常用於否定句,用在疑問句時會是在不知道答案的情況下。
  • any + 複數可數名詞 / 不可數名詞

I don’t want any onions in my hamburger.
我的漢堡裡不想要放任何洋蔥。

Do you have any tissue with you?
你身上有面紙嗎?(不確定對方是否有)

Are there any banks in this area?
這個區域有銀行嗎?(不確定是否有)

若要表示「任何一個都可以」,就可以把「any + 單數可數名詞」用在肯定句中。

You can use any word to describe yourself.
你可以用任何一個字描述自己。

You can borrow any book in this room at anytime.
你可以在任何時間借這房間裡的任何一本書。

some / any 比較

some 和 any 都有「一些」的意思,some 用於肯定句,而 any 用於否定句。

I have some blue pens, but I don’t have any red ones.
我有一些藍筆,但一支紅筆都沒有。

I speak some French, but I don’t speak any Japanese.
我能說一點法文,但我完全不會說日文。

some 和 any 都可以用於問句,但代表的意義不同喔。

Do you have some sunscreen?
你有防曬乳嗎?(帶有請求意味,並認為對方會有)

Do you have any sunscreen?
你有防曬乳嗎?(不清楚對方是否有)

a few

  • a few 表示「一些」
  • a few + 複數可數名詞

I have a few books about design.
我有一些關於設計的書。

It will take a few minutes to warm up.
熱身將會花上幾分鐘。

a little

  • a little 表示「一些」
  • a little + 不可數名詞

Give me a little water, please.
請給我一些水。

Ruby put a little sugar in her coffee.
露比在咖啡中加了一些糖。

a few / a little 比較

a few 和 a little 都是「一些」的意思,和 some 的意思差不多,不過後面分別加的是可數和不可數名詞。

I need to buy a few things before going home.
我在回家前要去買一些東西。

The meat could be better if you put a little sauce.
如果你放一點醬料,這肉會嚐起來更好。

few

  • few 的意思為「很少、幾乎沒有」(not many)
  • few + 複數可數名詞

There are few eggs left. Can you buy some?
剩下沒多少蛋了,你可以去買一些嗎?(some= some eggs)

David feels lonely because he has few friends.
大衛覺得很孤單,因為他沒什麼朋友。

little

  • little 的意思為「很少、幾乎沒有」(not much)
  • little + 不可數名詞

We had little rain this summer, so we needed to save water.
今年夏天的雨水很少,所以我們要節約用水。

Max has little money, so he needs to borrow some.
麥克斯沒有什麼錢,所以他需要去借一些。(some= some money)

📖 補充

如果用 a little 和 little 去描述語言程度,或許會讓你更清楚它們的差異喔~

Gina spoke a little Spanish, so she could communicate with the local people.
吉娜會說一些西班牙文,所以她能和當地人溝通。

Gina spoke little Spanish, so she could hardly communicate with the local people.
吉娜只會說一點點西班牙文,所以她很難和當地人溝通。

few / little 比較

少了 a 的 few 和 little 意思都是「很少、幾乎沒有」,特別注意這時候會帶有否定的意味唷!

The math test was too hard. Only few students passed.
那個數學考試太難了,只有很少數學生通過。

May I pay by credit card? I have little cash with me.
我可以用信用卡付錢嗎?我身上只有少許的現金。

many

  • many 為「很多」之意
  • many + 複數可數名詞

Lisa has many friends.
麗莎有很多朋友。

There are many stars in the sky.
天空中有很多星星。

Many people visit Tokyo every year.
每年都有很多人拜訪東京。

much

  • much 為「很多」之意,通常會用在否定句、疑問句中,若放在肯定句時會和 so、too 連用為主喔
  • much + 不可數名詞

There isn’t much information about this town.
關於這個城鎮沒有太多資訊。

Will it take much time to finish this project?
這個專案會要花很多時間完成嗎?

My sister spends too much money on cosmetics.
我姊姊花了太多錢在化妝品上。

many / much 比較

many 和 much 都是「很多」的意思,差別就在於後面分別是加可數和不可數名詞唷~

I didn’t visit many museums in Paris because I didn’t have much free time.
我在巴黎時沒有拜訪很多博物館,因為我沒有很多自由時間。

「很多」的用法除了以上的 many/much,口語中更常使用 a lot of / lots of,後面加可數或不可數名詞都可以喔

The room has lots of light.
這間房間光線充足。

I have a lot of free time tomorrow.
我明天有很多空閒時間。

如果要問數量的話,可以這麼問~

  • How many + 複數可數名詞 … ?
  • How much + 不可數名詞… ?

How many tickets do you want?
你要幾張票呢?

How many sandwiches can you eat at a time?
你一次可以吃多少三明治呢?

How much milk do you want to put in your coffee?
你想放多少牛奶在你的咖啡裡呢?

How much time do you need to finish the project?
你需要多少時間來完成這份專案呢?

另外,How much… 也可以用來詢問價錢唷~

How much is this watch?
這只手錶要多少錢呢?

How much are the shoes?
這雙鞋子要多少錢呢?

each

  • each 是用來表示「一個一個、個別」的概念
  • each + 單數可數名詞

Each movie ticket costs NTD 300. / The movie ticket costs NTD 300 each.
每張電影票是台幣三百元。

The teacher cut the pizza into ten pieces and gave each student a slice.
那位老師把披薩切成十塊,並分給每位學生各一片。

every

  • every 是用來表示「群體中的每一個」,且其中沒有例外,與 all 的概念相似
  • every + 單數可數名詞

Every seat in the theater was taken.
All seats in the theater were taken.
戲院的座位都有人了。

Every employee can get a laptop in this company.
All employees can get a laptop in this company.
這間公司的每位員工都可以得到一台筆電。

Every man has his taste.
人各有所好。(諺語)

each / every 比較

each 和 every 都有「每一」的意思,並且都要加上單數名詞,有時可互換使用:

Each/Every time I see you, you look happy.
每次我看到你,你看起來都很開心。

There is a fridge in each/every room of the hotel.
這間旅館裡每間房間都有一台冰箱。

原則上,each 和 every 強調的概念不太一樣,如下圖:

each 比較強調個體,every 指的是群中的每一個,也就是全部的概念

The boss talked to each employee about his/her performance.
那位老闆個別和每位員工討論其績效。

Every employee needs to talk to the boss in this month.
每位員工都要在這個月去找老闆談談。

each 可以用於只有兩者的情況,但 every 不行喔~

Grill the steak for five minutes on each side.
這塊牛排的兩面各烤個五分鐘。

She had a bag in each hand.
她每隻手上都有包包。

all

  • all 為「全部」
  • all + 複數可數名詞/不可數名詞

I have done all my homework.
我已經完成所有作業了。

All my family members will come to my graduation ceremony.
我所有的家人都會來參加我的畢業典禮。

I spent all the money my dad gave me.
我花光了我爸給我所有的錢。

whole

  • whole 意思為「整個的、整體的」,表示「事物的整體」或「事物的每一部分」
  • whole + 單數名詞

I finally finished reading the whole novel.
我終於讀完這整本小說了。

I ate a whole package of chips.
我吃掉了整包洋芋片。

all / whole 比較

all 和 whole 都有「全部」的意思,但 whole 會比 all 更強調完整性,且 whole + 單數名詞,而 all + 複數可數名詞/不可數名詞。

All men are created equal.
人皆生而平等。

The boy played video games all day.
那個男孩打了整天電玩。

I had a headache, so I lied in bed the whole day.
我頭很痛,所以在床上躺了一整天。

I spent my whole vacation doing this project.
我花了整個假期製作這份專案。

both

both 用來指稱只有兩個人或兩件事物,後面加上複數可數名詞

Amy and Sam are both chocolate lovers.
艾咪和山姆都是巧克力愛好者。

Both ideas sound good.
兩個點子聽起來都不錯。

Both (of) my parents can play the piano.
我爸媽都會彈鋼琴。

both A and B 是常見的組合,意思為 A、B 兩者都…,其中 A 和 B 必須是對等的(詞性相同)

Both Ann and Bob wanted to apply for that job.
安和包伯都想要申請那份工作。

I felt both hungry and tired after work.
下班後我感到又餓又累。

no

  • no 為「無、沒有」,用法等同於 not…any
  • no + 可數名詞 / 不可數名詞

I have no money.
=I don’t have any money.
我沒錢。

There are no workers in the office now.
=There are not any workers in the office now.
現在公司裡沒有員工。

I have no friends.
我沒有朋友。

My uncle has no wife and no children.
我叔叔沒有老婆和小孩。
(* no 後面會加複數的可數名詞為主,但因為老婆通常只會有一個,所以這裡會用單數 wife)

none

  • none 為 not one 的合併,表示「一個都不…」
  • none 後面若需要接名詞,就要使用 none of,表示在某個範圍內的對象「都不…」,因此需要加上 the/this/my 等限定詞在名詞前面唷。
  • none of + 可數名詞 + 單數/複數動詞
  • none of + 不可數名詞 + 單數動詞

None of my classmates likes/like the math teacher.
我同學沒有一個人喜歡數學老師。

None of the water is clean.
沒有水是乾淨的。

None of the meat tasted good in this restaurant.
這間餐廳的肉都不好吃。

📖 補充

none 除了以上「none of + 名詞」的用法,還可以這麼用喔:

A: Do you have any siblings?
A: 你有兄弟姐妹嗎?

B: No, I don’t have any siblings.
= No, I have no siblings.
= No, I have none.
B: 不,我沒有兄弟姊妹。

➡ none 在這裡就是 no siblings 的意思,算是代名詞喔~

no / none 比較

no 跟 none 都有「全無」的意思,但它們的用法並不同喔。none 會強調在某個範圍內都不…,no 則沒有限定範圍~

I had no meetings this morning.
我今天早上沒有會議。

I have many books, but none of them is/are useful.
我有很多本書,但其中沒有一本是有用的。

That’s All for Today

今天學了很多組用法,應該很充實吧~

這些數量詞的用法可以說是很常出現在生活中,那這邊主要先教大家的是最基本描述名詞的用法,讓你在說明數量時可以更具體喔!

未來如果遇到任何英文疑問時,要回來英文庫喔!😉

Celine

Hello! :) 是一個心思細膩、喜歡嘗試不同事物的英文老師,覺得英文可以讓你的世界更廣大,希望能幫助你學英文,讓生命更美好!❤️