關係副詞 where、when、why 的用法?來一次搞懂!

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唷齁~大家好,歡迎來到英文庫,我是 Min 👋,今天要聊的是關係副詞(relative adverbs)。

關係子句的概念是透過關係代名詞或關係副詞,將擁有共通元素的兩句併成一句。比方說,用下面兩句話描述一個房間,它們的共通元素是 the room,既然是 the room,照理說關代是用 which,但是,在第二句還多了一個介系詞 in,所以會變成 in which,表示「在那個地方」,而這時 in which 就可換成關副 where

This is the room.
這就是那間房間。

He was born in the room.
他在那間房間出生的。

➡ This is the room in which he was born.

➡ This is the room where he was born.
這就是他出生的房間。

💁 從上面的示範可看出,關副其實就等於是介系詞 + 關代關副主要有三個,分別是 wherewhenwhy,就跟關代 who、whichthat 一樣,都跟它們前面的名詞(=先行詞)有關係,只是它們本身是副詞,文法書就叫「關係副詞」,來看例句暖身吧,順便先破個小哏。

  • This is the room where he was born.
    ➡ 先行詞 the room 跟 地方 有關
  • I’ll always remember the day when we first met.
    ➡ 先行詞 the day 跟 時間 有關
  • This is the reason why he was upset.
    ➡ 先行詞 the reason 跟 原因 有關

一、where 的用法

This is the room where he was born. 這就是他出生的房間。
=
This is the room.
+
He was born in the room.

剛已經看過了「 This is the room where he was born.」這一句是如何組成的。where 連接了兩個子句「This is the room .」跟「He was born in the room.」,把第二句的 in the room 換成 where 就行,其他照抄。

那麼,你應該發現了吧?這邊的 where 不是在問「哪裡」喔,而是用來代替前面提到的地方,像是 room、 place、restaurant、library、house、country 等等,這時的 where 經常翻成「…… 的(地方)」,不信的話你再看看其他例句 😉。

It is the store where I saw your boyfriend.
這間就是我看到妳男友的店。
=
It is the store.
+
I saw your boyfriend in the store.

I went to the library where you lost your wallet.
我去了那間你搞丟皮夾的圖書館。
=
I went to the library.
+
You lost your wallet in the library.

You need to find a space where you can relax.
你需要找到一個能放鬆的空間。
=
You need to find a space.
+
You can relax in the space.

🔎 where 前面加不加逗號的差別?

上面例句的 where 都是在限定什麼地方,但如果 where 是單純補充說明該地的資訊,不是用來指定地方,那 where 和名詞的中間就要加一個逗號隔開。

文法書會用限定子句(沒逗點)跟非限定子句(有逗點)來解釋,如果這對你太燒腦 😵,不用糾結,換個方式去理解跟記憶就好囉。什麼時候要加逗點呢?第一個線索是前面的名詞是地名時,通常會加,因為地名大家都知道是指哪個,所以不需限定。第二個線索是 where 可以翻成「那裡」、「那邊」的話,也通常會加。

She just moved to Taoyuan, where her boyfriend has lived for years. .
她最近剛搬到桃園,她男友住在那裡好多年了。

➡ 補充說明  Taoyuan 的資訊

I like the city, where I stayed for a few weeks during the trip.
我喜歡那座城市
,旅行時我在那邊住過幾星期。

➡  補充說明  the city 的資訊

He lives in a remote village, where old houses are scattered.
他住在一個偏僻的小村莊,那邊的老屋零星座落。

➡ 補充說明  a remote village 的資訊

🔎 先行詞是地方,該用 where 還是 which?

咦,好奇怪,下面這兩句都是 house,為什麼第一句是用 where,第二句卻是用 which 呢 🤔?

This is the house where I lived for ten years.
這就是那間我曾住了十年的房子。

This is a house which has been haunted for years. 👻
這是一間鬧鬼多年的房子。

上面這兩句乍看很像,但如果各自還原成兩個句子,如下所示,就會看得出來,第一句的 the house 前面有介系詞,所以用關副 where,第二句的 the house 沒有介系詞,用關代 which 就好,小心別用錯囉!

This is the house where I lived for ten years.
=
This is the house.
+
I lived in the house for ten years.

➡ the house 前面有介系詞 in ,「在屋裡」是空間的概念

This is a house which has been haunted for years.
=
This is a house.
+
The house
has been haunted for years.

➡ the house 前面沒有介系詞,「那間房子」是事物的概念

💁 (有餘力再看的)Btw小補充:

對了,如果你想表達「這是我別無選擇的情況」,英文怎麼說呢?答案是:It is a situation where I have no other choices. 由於 situation 是「情況」,所以很多人會以為它的關係詞是用 which 或 that,但是,要用 where 才是正確的,為什麼呢?因為還原成兩句的話是:

It is a situation which I have no other choices. ❌

It is a situation that I have no other choices. ❌

It is a situation where I have no other choices. ⭕️
=
It is a situation.
+
I have no other choices in the situation.

➡ the situation 前面有介系詞  in,用 where。

二、when 的用法

▶ I’ll always remember the day when we first met. 我永遠都會記得我們初次見面的那一天。
=
I’ll always remember the day.

We first met on the day.

這邊的 when 不是在問「何時」,而是用來指前面提到的時間,像是 year、week、day、afternoon、night、time 等等。這時的 when 多半可以翻成「…… 的(時間)」。

Only weekends are the days when I can sleep in.
只有周末是我可以睡到自然醒的時候。
=
Only weekends are the days.
+
I can sleep in on those days.

They miss the months when they were together.
他們想念在一起的那幾個月。
=
They miss the months.
+
They were together in the months.

Dad, do you remember the night when you proposed to Mom?
老爸,你還記得跟老媽求婚的那個晚上嗎?
=
Dad, do you remember the night?
+
You proposed to Mom on the night.

🔎 when 前面加不加逗號的差別?

來看看 when 前面要加逗號的情況,其實跟 where 要加逗號的原理是一樣的,補充說明前面名詞的資訊時,就要放個逗號隔開,直接看例句。

He died that year, when his child was born.
他在那一年死去,同年他的孩子出生。

He still remembers his 18th birthday, when he bought his first car.
他還記得他的十八歲生日,當時他買了第一台車。

It was the beginning of 2020, when our lives started to be affected by the COVID-19.
那是 2020年初,當時全球人們的生活開始被新冠肺炎影響。

三、why 的用法

▶ This is the reason why he was upset. 這就是他不開心的原因。
=

This is the reason.
+
He was upset for the reason

why 當關副比較特別,滿專一的,通常都只跟 reason 這個字配對喔!所以,其實你也可以直接將 the reason(s) why 視為固定片語就好,這樣記最方便,繼續看例句吧。

It’s one of the reasons why I decided to come.
這是我決定要來的其中一個原因。

I don’t know the reason why he didn’t call you.
我不知道他沒有打給你的原因。

He doesn’t want to tell me the reason why he was late.
他不想告訴我他遲到的原因。

That’s it, folks!

喔耶!看完了,你好棒噢 🎉!恭喜你看完關係副詞 where、when、why 囉!關代跟關副的原理很像,所以應該不難吧?還有其他英文的問題嗎?多去其他文章逛逛吧,英文庫 🆒 咱們下次見!

Min

一個想要一輩子都當個老師+學生+書籍譯者的貪心鬼🤘,個人專頁 Yes Min:當英文家教/書籍譯者是一件很迷人的事。熱愛學習、腦力激盪、語言、文字、文學以及文化。平常是埋首事務的工作狂,會逃避人多的地方,一整天都不跟人說話也沒關係,但很喜歡跟學生互動,跟國小高年級到中高階主管都有過可愛的緣分 ❤。