來搞懂英文「連接詞、對等連接詞、從屬連接詞」

You are currently viewing 來搞懂英文「連接詞、對等連接詞、從屬連接詞」

Hello, everyone! 我是英文庫的 Celine 🙂,今天要來說明連接詞的用法~

連接詞顧名思義就是拿來連接字句的,最常見的大概就是 and、so、but 啦,不過另外還有很多連接詞也很好用,而且用對連接詞能讓你的表達更加精準、順暢喔!那就繼續往下學習吧~

什麼是連接詞?

連接詞的功能主要是在連接子句,讓它們產生明確的關係,像是這樣:

I want to buy a car, but I don’t have enough money.

Ken broke his leg, so he couldn’t go outside.

I met an old friend, and we had dinner together.

She went to church because it was Sunday.

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

除了連接子句,有些連接詞還可以連接單字片語,包括了 and、or、but:

I can sing and dance.

You can come here now or later.

The man is rich but unhappy.

You can put the book on the desk or in the drawer.

John likes to take photos and go hiking.

如果沒有連接詞,那麼很多概念就必須用單一的句子表達,這樣就會變得很冗~長~

I can sing. I can dance. I can’t do magic.

有了連接詞後,句子就可以連接在一起,形成精簡又不失語意的句子唷!

I can sing and dance, but I can’t do magic.

其實你可以把連接詞想像成磚頭和磚頭間的黏著劑,如果沒有黏著劑,兩塊磚頭就無法黏在一起囉,所以磚塊就好比字句,需要連接詞來形成連結。

對等連接詞?從屬連接詞?

英文中的連接詞主要有兩種,分別是「對等連接詞」和「從屬連接詞」,包括了:

  • 對等連接詞:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so(可以簡稱為 FANBOYS)
  • 從屬連接詞:when, while, before, after, because, although…

它們的功能都是在連接,但是有些文法細節是不同的喔。這裡就各挑了 so(所以)和 because(因為)來用例句解釋吧:

因為是星期日,所以她去教堂。

① It was Sunday, so she went to church.

② She went to church because it was Sunday.

so 和 because 都是用來表示因果關係,不過 so 是「對等連接詞」,而 because 是「從屬連接詞」。

因為它們屬性上的不同,所以有了以下最主要的差別:

⭕️  It was Sunday. So she went to church.  👉 兩個子句都可以獨立成句子

❌  She went to church. Because it was Sunday.  👉有連接詞的子句不能獨立成句子

為什麼會這樣呢?就讓我來解釋原因吧!

所謂的對等連接詞就是指連接的對象要是結構相同平行對稱的,所以這裡 so 就是連接了 it was Sunday 和 she went to church 這兩個子句,而對等連接詞還有一個最大的特點,就是連接的兩個子句可以是獨立的句子

再讓你多看看幾個例子:

The food is good, and it’s not expensive.
= The food is good. And it’s not expensive.
這食物很棒,而且不貴呢。

I want to finish the project today, but I am too tired.
= I want to finish the project today. But I am too tired.
我想要今天完成這份專案,但是我太累了。

⚠️ 留意一下,很多學習者會認為這是錯誤的,但其實是正確的,不要過度使用就好囉。

但是,從屬連接詞就不一樣了,它的名稱「從屬」就是指在連接的兩個子句中,一句會是「主句(主要子句)」,另一句會是「從句(從屬子句)」。主句是指那句話可以獨立存在,而從句就是指那句話是無法單獨存在的,因為它必須附屬在主句。以上面的例子來說:

⭕️  She went to church.   👉 主句——可以單獨存在

❌  Because it was Sunday.   👉 從句——無法單獨存在

➡️ She went to church because it was Sunday.  👉 主從句必須連接在一起才能呈現因果關係

我來給你一個比喻吧,主句就像是大人,從句就像是小孩,小孩是無法獨立存在的,必須要依附著大人才能生存嘛。

那簡單來說,有從屬連接詞的那句話就是從句喔,以 because it was Sunday 這句為例,就是附屬於 She went to church 以表示做這件事的原因。

PS: 「從句無法單獨存在」的這個原則主要會適用在寫作上,如果是口語方面的問答就不會那麼嚴謹喔。

句子的順序可以顛倒嗎?

除了以上提到的不同,還有一個比較細微的不同,就是從屬連接詞是可以放在句首的喔~
我們直接看例句吧:

① It was Sunday, so she went to church.
So she went to church, it was Sunday.

② She went to church because it was Sunday.
= Because it was Sunday, she went to church.

如你所見,對等連接詞只能放在句中,而前面通常會加上逗號
但從屬連接詞放句中句首都可以喔,只是放句首時,句子中間會加上逗號隔開主從句。

再看一個例子吧:

It’s raining outside, so I want to stay home.
外面在下雨,所以我想要待在家。

I want to stay home because it’s raining.
= Because it’s raining, I want to stay home.

以上就是兩種連接詞的比較,那下面會提供更多例句和細節給你~

準備好了嗎?Let’s go!

對等連接詞有哪些?

1. and

and 表示「和、尚且」,可以連接對等的單字、片語、子句。

I like to watch movies and read books.
我喜歡看電影和看書。

I ate a hamburger and two sandwiches.
我吃了一個漢堡和兩個三明治。

and 用於祈使句時,表示「那麼、那樣的話」。

Take a nap, and you will feel better.
小睡一下,那麼你會感覺好一點。

2. or

or 表示「或」,可以連接對等的單字、片語、子句。

Do you want tea or coffee?
你想要茶還是咖啡?

I can go to school on foot or by bike.
我可以走路或騎腳踏車去上學。

You or Andy needs to finish this project.
你或安迪要完成這份專案。

(*如果放在主詞位置時,動詞由最靠近 or 的字決定)

or 用於祈使句時,表示「否則、不然」。

Hurry up, or you will be late.
快一點,不然你會遲到。

3. but

but 表示「但是」,用來連接前後為對比意義的單字、片語或子句。

The food is nice but expensive.
那食物很棒但是很貴。

I like sci-fi movies, but my boyfriend likes horror movies.
我喜歡科幻電影,但我男友喜歡恐怖片。

The shoes are nice, but they are too small.
那鞋很棒,但太小了。

4. so

so 表示「所以」,用來連接兩個有因果關係的句子,且前面會加上逗號。

I felt very tired, so I went to bed early.
我太累了,所以很早就寢。

It’s getting cold, so put on your jacket.
天氣愈來愈冷了,所以套件夾克吧。

5. for

for 表示「因為」,用來連接兩個有因果關係的句子,表示此義時會放在句中為主,而且通常前面會加上逗號。

She was angry, for her husband forgot her birthday.
她很生氣,因為她老公忘了她的生日。

I want to stay home, for it’s raining heavily.
我想要待在家,因為外面雨下很大。

6. yet

yet 表示「但是、然而」,意思近似 but,用來連接前後為對比的子句,而且特別會是帶有驚訝或出乎意料的事。

The sun was shining, yet it was cold.
太陽雖照耀著,天氣還是很冷。

The test was easy, yet Mike didn’t pass it.
那個考試雖然很簡單,麥可仍然沒通過。

7. nor

nor 表示「也不」,是一個否定字,所以放其後面的句子需要倒裝喔(如第一句)。

I don’t like chocolate, nor does my sister.
我不喜歡巧克力,我妹也是。

The movie wasn’t good nor bad.
這部電影不好也不壞。

She seemed neither happy nor sad.
她看起來不開心也不難過。

從屬連接詞要連接什麼?

我們先來看幾個例句吧:

Because my phone was broken, I couldn’t call you.

Although Alan studied hard, he still failed the test.

My grandma fell asleep while she was watching TV.

你會發現每個例句都是由兩個獨立的句子組合起來的,而連接詞的功用就是把它們「合併」成一個有關係的句子,像是因果、轉折、時間順序等關係。
而以下例子就是用 because 合併使其具有因果關係:

My phone was broken.
I couldn’t call you.

Because my phone was broken, I couldn’t call you.

從屬連接詞有哪些?

從屬連接詞可以連接兩個句子,讓它們產生明確的關係,以下列舉主要的幾組用法:

  • 時間關係:when, while, before, after, since, as soon as, until
  • 因果關係:because, since, as
  • 轉折關係:although, though, even though
  • 條件關係:if, unless, as long as

when

when 表示「當…時」,也就是兩件事是發生在同一時間的。

When I came home, my dad was watching TV.
當我回家時,我爸正在看電視。

I will tell Peter the news when I meet him tomorrow.
當我明天見到他時,我會告訴他那個消息。

while

while 也是表示「當…時」,只是常會和持續一段時間的動作一起用,所以會用進行式表達,像是 listen to music、clean the house、read a book 等。

My phone rang while I was taking a shower.
當我的電話鈴聲響時,我正在洗澡。

While my mom was cooking, my dad was setting the table.
當媽媽在煮飯時,爸爸正在佈置餐桌。

while 還可以表示對比,意思是「而、然而、但是」,此用法 while 會放句中,而且前面會加上逗號喔。

Jay likes to go out, while his wife prefers to stay indoors.
傑喜歡外出,但他的老婆偏好待在室內。

Amy is tall, while her sister is short.
艾咪很高,但她妹妹很矮。

before

before 表示「在…之前」,會連接具有時間先後順序的句子。

Before you left the room, please turn off all the lights.
在你離開房間前,請關掉所有燈。

I need to go the bank before it closes.
我要在銀行關門前過去一趟。

after

after 表示「在…之後」,會連接具有時間先後順序的句子。

After I took a shower, I went to bed.
我洗完澡後就去睡了。

The kid went outside after he finished all the homework.
那個小孩在完成所有作業後才出門。

as soon as

as soon as 表示「一…就…」

The baby stopped crying as soon as she saw her mother.
那個小嬰兒一看到媽媽就不哭了。

As soon as I walked out of my house, it started to rain.
我才踏出家門就開始下雨了。

because

because 表示「因為」,是表達因果關係最普遍的連接詞。

I was late for the meeting because I missed the bus.
由於我沒搭上公車,所以開會遲到了。

Because the weather was bad, I stayed home.
因為天氣很糟,所以我待在家裡。

表示原因的用法還可以用 because of,但後面就要加上「名詞或動名詞」喔~

Because of the bad weather, I stayed home.
由於糟糕的天氣,所以我待在家裡。

since

since 可以表示「自從」或「因為、既然」,通常可以句意去判斷意思。當「自從」時,很常會和完成式連用。

I have lived in Taipei since I was little.
我從小就一直住在台北。

Since I left university, I haven’t played basketball.
自從我大學畢業後就沒再打過籃球了。

Since it was raining heavily, the baseball game was canceled.
因為當時雨下太大,棒球比賽就取消了。

I closed all the windows since it was cold.
因為天氣很冷,所以我關掉所有窗戶。

although/though/even though

although 和 though 的意思和用法差不多,都表示「雖然、儘管」,只是 though 會比較口語一點。而 even though 的對比語氣會更強烈一點。

Although the man has a lot of money, he isn’t happy.
雖然那個男人有很多錢,但他卻不快樂。

I couldn’t fall asleep although I was tired.
儘管我很累,卻無法睡著。

Though Mandy was sick, she still went to work.
雖然曼蒂生病了,她還是去上班。

Even though I liked the dress very much, I didn’t buy it.
雖然我很喜歡那件裙子,但我沒有買下。

if

if 表示「如果、假如」,用來表示兩個字句之間的條件關係。

If it rains tomorrow, the baseball game will be put off.
如果明天下雨,那場棒球比賽就會延期。

I can’t go outside if I don’t finish my homework.
如果我沒完成作業就不能出門。

If I were rich, I would buy a villa.
假如我很富有,我就會買一棟別墅。

常見錯誤

這裡先分享兩個台灣學習者常見的錯誤句子,看看你知道為什麼是錯的嗎~

第 ❶ 組

My ex is selfish, stingy, and an irresponsible guy.  ❌
我前任自私、吝嗇,還是個不負責任的傢伙。

其實這個錯誤是受到中文的影響,因為中文沒有對等連接詞的概念,所以你看中文句子會覺得沒什麼問題,但當這種句子變成英文時,就要留意了,原因是這句話用了對等連接詞 and 連接,但句子中連接的字並不對等,也就是 and 前面的 selfish 和 stingy 皆為形容詞,但 and 後面接的 an irresponsible guy 是名詞片語,所以要調整成:

My ex is selfish, stingy, and irresponsible.  ⭕️

My ex is a selfish, stingy, and irresponsible guy.  ⭕️

如此一來,用三個形容詞就符合結構對等的條件囉~

第 ❷ 組

因為我手機壞了,所以我無法打給你。

Because my phone was broken, so I couldn’t call you. ❌

Because my phone was broken, I couldn’t call you. ⭕️

My phone was broken, so I couldn’t call you. ⭕️

相信你心中有答案了!💡

上面說了,一個連接詞可以連接兩個句子,because 和 so 都是連接詞,所以不會同時連接兩個句子喔!
中文翻譯的「因為、所以」可以同時存在,但在英文句子就無法共存囉,選一個連接就好!

第 ❸ 組

雖然艾倫很用功讀書,但他還是考不及格。

Although Alan studied hard, but he still failed the test. ❌

Although Alan studied hard, he still failed the test. ⭕️

Alan studied hard, but he still failed the test. ⭕️

although 和 but 和上面是同樣的情況,都是連接詞,所以擇一就好!

That’s All for Today

這篇文章看似很長,但其實只要掌握基本概念,再熟悉連接詞有哪些字,你就能一步一步征服連接詞囉!

記得下次遇到任何英文疑問時,要回來英文庫喔!😉

Celine

Hello! :) 是一個心思細膩、喜歡嘗試不同事物的英文老師,覺得英文可以讓你的世界更廣大,希望能幫助你學英文,讓生命更美好!❤️